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PHI208 Quiz



Question 1. 1. In the excerpt from Plato’s  Republic, Glaukon suggests that people are good (Points : 1)
       only because they are powerless to commit injustice and get away with it.

       because their conscience tells them to be.

       out of reverence for the law.

       because living justly is objectively the best sort of life.



Question 2. 2. According to Glaukon, justice is based on (Points : 1)
       Mutually advantageous agreements among people.

       The laws of God.

       Natural goodwill among people.

       The will of the powerful.



Question 3. 3. If Midgley is correct, moral scepticism (Points : 1)
       Leads to inaction.

       Leads to crude opinions.

       Leads to immorality.

       Rejects all criticism.



Question 4. 4. Rachels claims that most actual cases of killing: (Points : 1)
       are morally worse than most actual cases of letting die.

       are morally the same most actual cases of letting die.

       are morally less bad than most actual cases of letting die.

       are morally required.



Question 5. 5. Rachels argues that the conventional doctrine: (Points : 1)
       is self-evidently correct.

       is not what most people believe, but can be supported by strong arguments.

       leads to decisions concerning life and death made on morally irrelevant grounds.

       leads to patients being euthanized against their will.



Question 6. 6. Glaukon seems to think that people are (Points : 1)
       Naturally benevolent

       Naturally pious

       Naturally just

       Naturally egocentric



Question 7. 7. According to Rachels, the “conventional doctrine” maintains that: (Points : 1)
       active euthanasia is sometimes permissible, but passive euthanasia never is.

       passive euthanasia is sometimes permissible, but active euthanasia never is.

       both active and passive euthanasia are sometimes permissible.

       neither active nor passive euthanasia are ever permissible.



Question 8. 8. Kass argues that there is an important difference between withdrawing treatment and active, direct mercy killing, and this difference lies in the (Points : 1)
       primary intention of the doctor.

       ultimate outcome of the actions.

       Constitution of the United States.

       sympathy that we feel for the patient’s suffering.



Question 9. 9. Midgley thinks that although we can understand or appreciate other societies, (Points : 1)
       We should never judge the values of other societies.

       We must always respect the values of other societies.

       We have the right to judge other societies.

       We cannot understand them well enough to judge them.



Question 10. 10. Rachels claims that active euthanasia: (Points : 1)
       sometimes leads to more suffering than passive euthanasia.

       sometimes leads to the same amount of suffering as passive euthanasia.

       sometimes leads to less suffering than passive euthanasia.

       all of the above.



Question 11. 11. According to Midgley, moral isolationism (Points : 1)
       Is a “perverse indulgence of the self-righteous.”

       Is based on skeptical diagnosis.

       Stems from concerns about hypocrisy.

       Justifies immorality.



Question 12. 12. According to Rachels, many people accept the conventional doctrine because they believe: (Points : 1)
       killing is intrinsically worse than letting die.

       there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die.

       letting die is morally worse than killing.

       it is never permissible either to let someone die or to kill them.



Question 13. 13. According to Rachels, active euthanasia involves: (Points : 1)
       the intentional termination of one’s life by another person, to relieve pain and suffering.

       ceasing to use “extraordinary means” to prolong someone’s life.

       intentionally causing a patient’s death, against the patient’s wishes.

       the refusal to treat a patient to avoid incurring unnecessary costs.



Question 14. 14. Why is it hard for physicians to understand palliative care? (Points : 1)
       They do not care about their patients enough.

       They are well-educated in palliative care.

       They did not pay attention in medical school.

       They are focused on healing rather than helping die.



Question 15. 15. Leon Kass argues that the primary responsibility of physicians is to: (Points : 1)
       respect the autonomy of the patient.

       make decisions on the basis of compassion and good intention.

       benefit sick by the activity of healing.

       preserve a patient’s life by every means possible. 



Question 16. 16. According to Leon Kass, the drive to legalize euthanasia can be largely attributed to (Points : 1)
       the rise in a largely technical approach to healing.

       an increase in our sympathy.

       an increased respect for human dignity.

       the secularization of modern society.



Question 17. 17. Glaukon thinks that deep in our hearts we all believe that (Points : 1)
       Injustice is more profitable than justice.

       We will have a clearer conscience if we always stick to the laws of justice.

       To be unjust is to be a fool.

       Both B and C.



Question 18. 18. Rachels concludes that: (Points : 1)
       active euthanasia is always worse than passive euthanasia.

       passive euthanasia is always worse than active euthanasia.

       active euthanasia is always morally permissible.

       none of the above.



Question 19. 19. Midgely concludes that (Points : 1)
       If we accept a value in another culture, we can still reject that value in our culture.

       If we accept a value in another culture, we must accept that value in our culture.

       If we reject a value in another culture, we must reject that value in our culture.

       B and C.



Question 20. 20. If the Ring of Gyges really existed, (Points : 1)

       Just people would use it for justice.

       Just people would not use it at all.

       Unjust people would use it differently than just people.

       Everyone would use it the same.

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