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English Deutsch Erklarung UNIT 18 Beispiele Market leader Marktfuhrer someone or something that is winning during a race or other situation where people are competing A company’s sales expressed as a percentage of the total market Short-term tactics designed to stimulate stronger sales of a product The situation in which there is only one seller of a product; a market in a particular product in which a single producer can fix an artificial price.
Companies offering similar goods or services to the same set of customers A short and easily memorized phrase used in advertising The division of a market into submarkets according to the needs or buying habits of different groups of potential customers A small and specific market segment; an area or position which is exactly suitable for a small group of the same type Microsoft is a world leader in software design. Market share Marktanteil Promotion, Warenangebot Monopol, Monopolstellung The company has increased its market share. Promotion
There was a promotion in the supermarket and they were giving away free glasses of wine. The government is determined to protect its tobacco monopoly. Monopoly Competitors Konkurrenten Werbespruch, Motto, Slogan Marktsegmentierung, Marktunterteilung Nische Their prices are better than any of their competitors. an advertising slogan Slogan Market segmentation City Insurance segmented the market into three by issuing three types of policy. Niche an ecological niche. 1 Differential advantage Turnover Differentialvorteil, -vorzug Umsatz Rezession Perfekter Wettbewerb

A factor which makes you superior to competitors in a certain respect A business’s total sales revenue A period during which an economy is working below its potential When products are homogeneous, and there are a great many firms too small to have any influence on the market price, and firms can easily enter and exit the industry Situation in which there is only one buyer Industry in which the efficient existence of more than one producer is impossible; examples include public utilities such as water, gas and electricity, where it would be inefficient to have several competing companies laying their own networks of pipes or cables.
When many producers of slightly differentiated products are able to sell them at well above their marginal costs. A concentrated market dominated by a few large suppliers. This is very frequent in manufacturing because of economies of scale and the cost barriers of entering and industry Factors which cause the average cost of producing something to fall as output increases. Large supermarkets have high turnovers (= their goods sell very quickly). The country is sliding into the depths of (a) recession. The two companies are in competition with each other. Recession Perfect competition Monopsony Natural monopoly
Monopson Naturliches Monopol Monopolistic competition Monopolistischer Wettbewerb Oligopoly Oligopol Economies of scale Massenproduktionsvorteile 2 Barriers to entry Zugangsbeschrankungen Economic or technical factors that make it difficult or impossible for firms to enter a market or compete with existing suppliers. One in which a market leader can indicate its preferred price to smaller competitors. Dominant-firm oligopoly Cartel Kartell Group of producers or sellers who fix prices and quantities in order to avoid competition and increase profits. This is illegal in many countries, most notably the USA an oil cartel 3 UNIT 19
Innovation Innovation, Neuerung Streuen, aufteilen Fusionieren, verschmelzen, Uberfall, Angriff Designing new products and bringing then to the market To expand into new fields To unite, combine, amalgamate, integrate or join together Buying another company’s shares on the stock exchange, hoping to persuade enough other shareholders to sell to take control of the company A public offer to a company’s shareholders to buy their shares, at a particular price during a particular period, so as to acquire a company To merge with or take over other firms producing the same type of goods or services Joining with firms in other stages of the production or sale of a product A merger with or the acquisition of one’s suppliers A merger with or the acquisition of one’s marketing outlets Combined production that is greater than the sum of the separate parts Team work at its best results in a synergy that can be very productive. The company made a takeover bid for a rival firm. the latest innovations in computer technology To diversify Many wheat farmers have begun to diversify into other forms of agriculture.
They decided to merge the two companies into one. To merge A raid Takeover bid Ubernahmeangebot Horizontal Horizontal, waagrecht Vertikal, senkrecht Rucklaufig, ruckwarts gerichtet Vorwarts, voraus Synergie Draw a horizontal line across the bottom of the page. vertical lines/stripes Vertical Backward Forward Synergy 4 UNIT 23 Printing money and destroying it Setting interest rates, ceilings & floors Commercial banking supervision Controlling the amount of banknotes in circulation Establishing maximum and minimum lending rates, thereby controlling the credit system Ensuring that banks have a sufficient liquidity ratio to allow customers to withdraw their deposits when they want
Intervening on foreign exchange markets, buying or selling large amounts of the national currency, to prevent major fluctuations Lending money to a commercial bank in danger of going bankrupt Selling government bonds to commercial banks or buying them back, in order to alter the amount of credit the banks can offer (and thereby alter the money supply) Einkommensteuer Direkte Steuer (nach oben) gestaffelte Steuer Indirekte Steuer Mehrwertsteuer, Umsatzsteuer The tax people pay on their wages and salaries A tax on wages and salaries or on company profits A tax levied at a higher rate on higher incomes A tax paid on property, sales transactions, imports, and so on A tax collected at each stage of production, excluding the already-taxed costs from previous Exchange rates supervision Act as a lender of los resort Open market operations Income tax Direct tax Progressive tax Indirect tax Value-added tax 5 tages Capital gains tax Kapitalertragssteuer Erbschafts- und Schenkungssteuer Reichensteuer, Vermogenssteuer Steuerhinterziehung (legale) Steuervermeidung Abschreibung Abhaltung, negativer Anreiz rucklaufig Konsum, Verbrauch, Verzerr selbststandig Staatliche Sozialversicherung Leistungsanreiz, Vorteil Profits made by selling assets are generally liable to Gifts and inheritances over a certain value are often liable to The annual tax imposed on people’s fortunes (in some countries) Making false declarations to the tax authorities Reducing the amount of tax you pay to a legal minimum Reducing the value of a fixed asset, by charging it against profits Something which discourages an action An adjective describing a tax that is proportionally higher for people with less money Spending money to uy things, rather than saving it; Spending on goods and services Working for yourself, being your own boss A tax on incomes that pays for sickness benefit, unemployment benefit, and old-age pensions Non-financial benefits or advantages of a job A way to delay the payment of tax to a later time Steuerlich absetzbar Describes expenditures that can be taken away Capital transfer tax Wealth tax Tax evasion Tax avoidance Depreciation Disincentive Regressive Consumption Self-employed National insurance Perks Tax shelters Tax-deductible 6 from taxable income or profits Tax havens Steueroasen A country offering very low tax rates to foreign businesses 7 UNIT 25
Expectations Mortgage Erwartungen, Aussichten Hypothek, Verpfanden Mieten, Pacht Output, Leistung Investition, Anlage Industrielle Jemanden entlassen, feuern demografisch Einschrankung Annahmen Ware, Handelsware Ausgleich, Gleichgewicht Beliefs about what will happen in the future Money borrowed in order to buy a house or flat or apartment Money paid for the use of a house or flat owned by somebody else The amount of something produced by a company, a country, and so on Spending on new machines, factories, and so on Owners or managers of manufacturing companies To dismiss employees Concerning the number of births, deaths, population movements, and so on An absence of luxury and comfort something that you accept as true without question or proof a substance or product that can be traded, bought or sold a state of balance People tend to make assumptions about you when you have a disability. The country’s most valuable commodities include tin and diamonds.
The disease destroys much of the inner-ear, disturbing the animal’s equilibrium. Rent (Country’s) output Investment Industrialists Lay off Demographic Austerity Assumptions Commodity Equilibrium 8 Exchange Tauschen exogen Information Ressourcen, Mittel when you give something to someone and they give you something else They were given food and shelter in exchange for work. Exogenous Information facts about a situation, person, event, etc a useful or valuable possession or quality of a country, organization or person I read an interesting bit/piece of information in the newspaper. The country’s greatest resource is the dedication of its workers. Resources 9 UNIT 27
Visible trade Invisible imports and exports Barter or countertrade Balance of trade Warenverkehr, sichtbarer Handel Inlandische Dienstleistung an Auslander, unsichtbarer Handel Tauschhandel Handelsbilanz Zahlungsbilanz Trade in goods Trade in services (banking, insurance, tourism, and so on) Direct exchanges of goods, without the use of money The difference between what a country receives and pays for its exports and imports of goods The difference between a country’s total earnings from exports and its total expenditure on imports The (impossible) situation in which a country is completely self-sufficient and has no foreign trade A positive balance of trade or payments A negative balance of trade or payments Selling goods abroad at (or below) cost price Imposing trade barriers in order to restrict imports Taxes charged on imports Quantitative limits on the import of particular products or commodities Balance of payments Autarky Autarkie, wirtschaftliche Unabhangigkeit Uberschuss, Mehrbetrag Defizit, Verlust, Mangel Preisunterbietung Protektionismus, Schutzzollpolitik Tarife, Zolle Quoten Surplus Deficit Dumping Protectionism Tariffs Quotas 10 Infant industries
Kleinkinderbranchen UNIT 29 Market opportunity Marktchance Menschen mit hohem Eigenkapital risikoscheu Borsennotiert, notiert Gebuhr, Entgelt, Honorar Eigenkapital Laufende Kosten, variable Kosten Marktdurchdringung Aufsichtsratsmitglied The possibility of providing a new product or service to satisfy particular needs People with a lot of money at their disposal Describes investors who do not want to take risks with their money Describes companies whose shares are traded on the stock exchange Money paid to professional people for a job of work done Another word for stocks or shares: a company’s own capital The day-to-day expenses of operating a business.
The attempt to increase or maximize sales, and get a large number of customers Directors who do not work full time for a company, but advise it about strategic issues Individual consumers, households, companies, organizations, etc. Vorausschau Seeing what will happen in the future To do what you prefer to do, at the lowest High net worth individuals Risk averse Listed Fee Equity Running costs Market penetration Non-executive directors Economic agents Foresight To maximize utility 11 possible cost Expectations Erwartungen, Aussichten Existenzgrunder Wachsamkeit, Aufmerksamkeit Unwissenheit Bewusstsein What people think or anticipate will happen in the future A person who starts a business Being quick to see, understand or act in new situations Not knowing about something Knowing or being conscious of something Entrepreneur Alertness Ignorance Awareness 12

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