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The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body. When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharamcodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease. In this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a particular patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes altered his or her response to a drug.

To prepare:
  • Review this week’s media presentation with Dr. Terry Buttaro, as well as Chapter 2 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text, and the Scott article in the Learning Resources. Consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
  • Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last five years. Select a case from the last five years that involves a patient whose individual differences in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug. When referring to your patient, make sure to use a pseudonym or other false form of identification. This is to ensure the privacy and protection of the patient.
  • Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.
  • Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study.
  • Post a description of the case you selected. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient from the case you selected. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case.Post
    Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012).
    Introduction to advanced
    . Baltimore, MD: Author

    For this Discussion, you will take on the role of a clinician who is building a health history for one of the following new patients:

    • 76-year-old Black/African-American male with disabilities living in an urban setting
    • Adolescent Hispanic/Latino boy living in a middle-class suburb
    • 55-year-old Asian female living in a high-density poverty housing complex
    • Pre-school aged white female living in a rural community
    • 16-year-old white pregnant teenager living in an inner-city neighborhood

    To prepare:

    With the information presented in Chapter 1 in mind, consider the following:

    • How would your communication and interview techniques for building a health history differ with each patient?
    • How might you target your questions for building a health history based on the patient’s age, gender, ethnicity, or environment?
    • What risk assessment instruments would be appropriate to use with each patient?
    • What questions would you ask each patient to assess his or her health risks?
    • Select onepatient from the list above on which to focus for this Discussion.
    • Identify any potential health-related risks based upon the patient’s age, gender, ethnicity, or environmental setting that should be taken into consideration.
    • Select oneof the risk assessment instruments presented in Chapter 1 or Chapter 26 of the course text, or another tool with which you are familiar, related to your selected patient.
    • Develop at least fivetargeted questions you would ask your selected patient to assess his or her health risks and begin building a health history.

    Posta description of the interview and communication techniques you would use with your selected patient. Explain why you would use these techniques. Identify the risk assessment instrument you selected, and justify why it would be applicable to the selected patient. Provide at least five targeted questions you would ask the patient.

    Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2015). Seidel’s guide to physical examination(8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

    • Chapter 1, “The History and Interviewing Process” (pp. 1–21)


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